Vitamon K contains 0,145 mg phytomenadione per ml of diluent. Additives: alpha-tocopherol ? ol. arachid. q. s. ad 1 ml.
Vitamin K contributes to normal blood coagulation.
The administration of vitamin K is recommended as a food supplement in infants who receive only breast.The amount of vitamin K in Vitamon K is insufficient to prevent bleeding at birth.
Vitamin K is an essential cofactor in the hepatic synthesis of various coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X, and it indirectly influences the binding of calcium-phospholipid.
A deficiency in vitamin K results in a slowing of the coagulation, as in the adult than in the newborn. The intestinal flora of the infant is not yet sufficiently developed to be able to synthesize itself of the vitamin K.
As breast milk contains virtually no vitamin K, the daily needs of the infant receives the breast during the 3 months of his life are not being sufficiently covered.
It is necessary to draw a distinction between prophylaxis:
- At birth, for all newborn babies (born at term or preterm). They should receive a single dose of vitamin K (i. m. or oral administration of 1 mg to 10 mg) in order to avoid the overall risk of hemorrhage.
- After the birth, from the second week of life, only for new-born babies who receive only breast. They can receive the vitamin K for a few weeks (maximum 3 months) on a base of 25 ?g per day (a low dose).
Phytomenadione (vitamin K1) is a fat-soluble vitamin. After oral administration, 80 % of the administered amount is absorbed in the digestive tract to the height of the middle segment of the small intestine, which requires the presence of juices bile and pancreatic. Vitamin K1 is transported by the lymph and is mainly stored in the liver (approximately 50 %). Administered in therapeutic doses, we found no accumulation in the liver.
In the plasma, phytomenadione is linked to approximately 90 % to lipoproteins. Phytomenadione is metabolized rapidly in polar metabolites, of which a small part is biologically active (menaquinone-4). 40-50 % of the metabolites are eliminated in the form of a glucuronide with the bile, and about 20% are excreted with the urine. The half-life in plasma is 1.5 to 3 hours. Vitamin K does not cross the placenta, and breast milk contains almost no vitamin K either.